Medical Express

ISSN (print): 2318-8111

ISSN (online): 2358-0429

Issue: 3(6)2016 - 6 Articles

REVIEW

1 - Association between depression severity and executive functioning in late-life depression: a systematic review

Suzana Monteiro; Bárbara Monteiro; Maristela Candida; Nathalia Adler; Carlos Campos; Nuno Barbosa F. Rocha; Flávia Paes; Antônio Egidio Nardi; Sergio Machado

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(6):M160601

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OBJECTIVE: Late-life depression is an under-diagnosed and under-treated disease that reduces the well-being of older adults. Executive dysfunction is another critical impairment in elderly depressed individuals which further disrupts their everyday functioning. This systematic review aims to analyze the association between executive function and depression severity in elderly individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder.
METHOD: The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE/PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsychInfo, after a search strategy combining the terms "depression", "executive function", "neuropsychological assessment", "elderly" and "late life". Study selection, data collection and quality ratings was performed by two independent raters.
RESULTS: A total of 1,130 articles were found but only 8 studies met the defined eligibility criteria and evaluated the association between depression severity and executive functioning. Six out of 8 studies found an association between depression severity and executive function, with correlations ranging from small to large (r= -0.15 to -0.53). The included reports had several methodological limitations such as selective data reporting, non-comprehensive executive function assessment and not controlling potential biases.
CONCLUSION: Depression severity may be more strongly correlated with a specific set of executive abilities although it also seems to be a broad-based association with executive functioning as a whole. Future high-quality prospective studies are recommended in order to understand the causal relationship between depression severity and executive functioning taking into account possible mediators such as age-related or neurodegenerative cognitive impairment, educational level and other clinic characteristics (e.g. age of onset, medication).


Keywords: Late-life Depression, Major Depressive Disorder, Executive Function.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

2 - Adhesion to the monitoring of newborns from VDRL positive mothers

Izailza Matos Dantas Lopes; José Aderval Aragão; Adriana Dantas Lopes; Marcos Almeida-Santos; Sônia Oliveira Lima; Vania Fonseca; Vera Lúcia Corrêa Feitosa; Francisco Prado Reis

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(6):M160602

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OBJECTIVE: Treponema pallidum is the etiological agent of congenital syphilis, which results from fetal contamination by the infected mothers, who were not treated or were inadequately treated during pregnancy.
METHODS: An observational, prospective and longitudinal study, was performed (2010-2014), through the evaluation of 428 newborns during 18 months in a syphilis clinic from a Philanthropic Maternity Hospital in Aracaju, capital city of the Northeastern state of Sergipe, Brazil. The findings were statistically expressed as descriptive data and the statistical program used was SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences).
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of congenital syphilis was 10.02/1,000 live births. A total of 120 (28%) of newborns did not attend the first appointment. During the observational period, at 18 months, the rate of abandonment was 75%. The average interval of healing of the newborns was 4.25 months. A high prevalence of congenital syphilis was found with low adhesion to the first consultation and monitoring period; 67.1% of newborns were treated with Crystalline Penicillin (Penicillin G) and only 3% of them required a repeat treatment.


Keywords: Congenital syphilis; prenatal care; prevalence.

3 - Depression is inversely associated with sexual satisfaction and physical function in men living with HIV/AIDS

Vagner Raso; Magdalena Ioana Tolea; Jorge Simão do Rosário Casseb; Alberto José da Silva Duarte; Júlia Maria D'Andréa Greve

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(6):M160603

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OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between depression and physical fitness and function in men living with HIV/AIDS and the role of sexual satisfaction in these associations.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study conducted with 40 males living with HIV/AIDS (40.75 ± 8.68 years [25-66 yrs. old]) divided in two groups based on CD4+ nadir (low nadir < 200 cells/mm3; high nadir ≥ 200 cells/mm3).
METHODS: Depression was determined by the Beck Depression Inventory. Participants were asked to evaluate their satisfaction with sexual life and their physical fitness was assessed by flexibility, muscle strength and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Physical function was measured by time taken to move from seated to standing position (TSSP), time to tie sneakers, and time to walk 3.33 m.
RESULTS: Depression was inversely associated with sexual satisfaction (for low and high CD4+ nadir) and flexibility (for low CD4+ nadir), and positively associated with walking time (for low CD4+ nadir and total sample), and time to tie sneakers (for the total sample). Sexual satisfaction was positively associated with muscle strength (for low CD4+ nadir and total sample), but inversely with TSSP (for low CD4+ nadir and total sample), walking time (for low CD4+ nadir and total sample), and time to tie sneakers (for high CD4+ nadir and total sample).
CONCLUSION: Findings suggest a negative association between depression and physical function regardless of retrospective clinical status of men living with HIV/AIDS and a potential role for sexual satisfaction in explaining this association.


Keywords: AIDS; Lymphocytes; Depression; Physical function; Physical fitness; Sexual behavior.

4 - Anthropometric profile, eating habits and physical activity levels of students in a city in the state of São Paulo

Maria Tereza Artero Prado; Thiago Américo Cartuchi Aoyagui; André Luiz Matsumoto Scarcelli; Deborah Cristina Gonçalves Luiz Fernani; Thais Massetti; Talita Dias da Silva; Beatriz Cecilio Bebiano; Ana Paula Coelho Figueira Freire; Carlos Bandeira de Mello Monteiro

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(6):M160604

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OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence of overweight in students aged 7 to 13 years in public schools in a city in the state of São Paulo; to compare the eating habits and physical activity levels of the students with those of their parents; to relate eating habits and physical activity levels to gender.
METHODS: This was a transverse observational study. Eighty-two children of both genders, aged 7 – 13 years, were evaluated, anthropometric data collected and body mass index for age was classified as per the Brazilian Ministry of Health "Food and Nutrition Monitoring System" (SISVAN); concurrently we applied a questionnaire for the analysis of physical activity levels and eating profiles for students and their parents. Data were analyzed through Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, unpaired Student t test or Mann Whitney; for correlation analysis, we employed the Spearman or Pearson tests.
RESULTS: In this study, half of the students were found to be overweight, with an increased abdominal circumference. We also observed that better eating habits correlated with greater physical activity. Students consumed more fried food, sweets and fruit and ate more often than their parents; few of these parents regularly perform physical activity.
CONCLUSIONS: Excess weight has been found in half of the students evaluated in a small town with a high Human Development Index. It was also found that boys presented higher level of physical activity, number of meals and lower sweet intake. Furthermore, it was observed that better eating habits were associated with the level of physical activity.


Keywords: overweight, obesity, exercise, eating behaviors, child.

5 - The expression of the aminoacid transporters ASCT2 (SLC1A5) and LAT1 (SLC7A5) in astrocytomas

Maria José Ferreira Alves; Miyuki Uno; Roseli da Silva; Sueli Mieko Oba-Shinjo; Suely Kazue Nagahashi Marie

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(6):M160605

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OBJECTIVE: ASCT2 and LAT1 are aminoacid transporters involved in glutamine transport and play a role in tumor growth. Previous studies have shown an association of ASCT2 to cell proliferation through the mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) translational machinery; LAT1 has been shown as a prognostic marker due to its relation to tumor invasion, microscopic vascular invasion and metastasis. This study analyzed the gene expression of ASCT2 and LAT1 in astrocytomas of different grades and how this correlates to clinical outcome in glioblastoma patients.
METHOD: This is an observational study with ASCT2 and LAT1 mRNA expression analysis in 153 samples of human astrocytomas, distributed in different World Health Organization (WHO) grades of malignancy (23 at grade I or pilocytic astrocytoma, 26 at grade II or low-grade astrocytoma, 18 at grade III or anaplastic astrocytoma, 86 at grade IV astrocytoma or glioblastoma (AGIV or GBM)); these were compared to 22 non-neoplastic brain samples.
RESULTS: Significant hyperexpression of both genes was observed particularly in malignant astrocytomas (GIII & GBM). Moreover, LAT1 hyperexpression impacted negatively in the overall survival in a subset of GBM patients.
CONCLUSION: LAT1 is more expressed in higher grade astrocytomas. It leads to a poorer prognosis among GBM patients and may be a potential therapeutical target.


Keywords: ASCT2, LAT1, astrocytomas, glutamine, gene expression.

RAPID COMMUNICATION

6 - Low-dose resveratrol supplementation on heart rate variability in hypertensive volunteers: a controlled double-blind trial

Julia Silva-e-Oliveira; Diêne Ferrão; Dênis Damasceno; Fabianne Furtado

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(6):M160606

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OBJECTIVE: Hypertension decreases the heart rate variability (HRV). Resveratrol, a phenolic compound found in grapes and their products, has been explored for its potential to treat hypertension. We evaluated the effects of low-dose resveratrol on HRV in hypertensive volunteers.
METHOD: Twenty-one hypertensive volunteers of both sexes were supplemented with resveratrol (n = 11) or placebo (n = 10) for 30 days. HRV parameters were measured before and during a standardized treadmill exercise. One resveratrol- and 3 placebo-treated patients were lost to follow-up.
RESULTS: There were no anthropometric differences between resveratrol (n = 10) and placebo (n = 7) other than a difference in body mass index. The measured HRV parameters did not differ between resveratrol and placebo, or between control and treadmill exercise.
CONCLUSION: Low-dose resveratrol did not alter HRV in hypertensive patients.


Keywords: Grape seed extract, Hypertension, Autonomic nervous system.