Medical Express

ISSN (print): 2318-8111

ISSN (online): 2358-0429

Issue: 3 (1) 2016 - 8 Articles


1 - Social networking, a new online addiction: a review of Facebook and other addiction disorders

Eduardo Guedes; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Flávia Melo Campos Leite Guimarães; Sergio Machado; Anna Lucia Spear King

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(1):M160101

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INTRODUCTION: Facebook is the world's most widely accessed social network, where millions of people intercommunicate. Behavioral and psychological changes relate to abusive and uncontrolled use creating severe impacts on users' life.
METHOD: A critical revision was performed through MedLine, Lilacs, SciELO and Cochrane databases using the terms: "Facebook Addiction," "Social Network Sites," "Facebook Abuse." The search covered the past 5 years up to January 2015. Articles that examine dependence on Facebook in the general population were included; we analyzed how this concept evolved over the last five years, and hope to contribute to the better understanding of the issue and its impacts.
RESULTS: Although controversial, published reports correlate Facebook addiction to mechanisms of reward and gratification. Some users developed an abusive relationship stimulated by the false feeling of satisfaction or as a way to feel better or more self-assured (increased level of excitement or escape). Studies from several countries indicate different prevalence, probably due to lack of consensus, and the use of different denominations, giving rise to the adoption of different diagnostic criteria.
CONCLUSION: Social Networks are modern communication tools; however, not only benefits, but also subsequent damage caused by its abusive use must be monitored. Many users with abusive usage and dependence recognize significant losses in their personal, professional, academic, social and family lives. Further investigation is needed to determine if abusive Facebook usage is a new psychiatric classification or merely the substrate of other disorders.

Keywords: Facebook Addiction, Facebook Abuse, Social Media Addiction, Social Media Abuse, Social Networking Sites Addiction.

2 - A meta-analysis of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in pre-pubertal healthy children produces new information

Aline Cristina Tavares; Edimar Alcides Bocchi; Iram Soares Teixeira Neto; Guilherme Veiga Guimarães

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(1):M160102

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The objective of the paper was to analyze cardiopulmonary data and functional capacity in healthy children who have undergone ergospirometry. A systematic meta-analysis review of ergospirometry in children was performed based on reports indexed in PubMed, Bireme, and Embase. End points were age, sex, body mass index, maturation evaluation, the type of ergometer used for ergospirometry, and cardiopulmonary related values (peak heart rate and peak oxygen consumption [VO2]). Twenty articles were selected, which included 3,808 children, averaging 9.1years of age. A treadmill was used in 55% of the trials, and a cycle ergometer in the other 45% studies included in this analysis. The following statistically significant results were found: on subgroup analysis, peak VO2 values in boys on the treadmill was 20% higher than peak VO2 values in girls on the cycle ergometer; peak VO2 values in boys on the treadmill were 18% greater than that for girls on the same ergometer. BMI was inversely correlated with peak VO2 in the total analysis, and in female subjects on cycle ergometers. Peak heart rate during the ergospirometrical test was 5.6 BPM higher than the estimated 95% maximum heart rate. Most of the ergospirometrical parameters had not been reported in the original trials analyzed here. We conclude that peak VO2 value for pre-pubertal children are circa 18% higher in boys vs. girls and overall higher in treadmill vs. cycle ergometers.

Keywords: Cardiopulmonary function, Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, Peak oxygen consumption.


3 - Depressive, anxious, withdrawal symptoms, and craving as possible predictors of abstinence maintenance in smokers attending a 12-week quitting program

Fiammetta Cosci; Giuly Bertoli; Francesco Pistelli; Laura Carrozzi

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(1):M160103

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Depressive, anxious, withdrawal symptoms, and craving might affect differently the probability to maintain abstinence after quitting smoking.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess depressive, anxious, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, and craving in a sample of smokers attending a smoking cessation program over a period of 12 weeks.
METHODS: A naturalistic study was conducted in which 78 smokers were consecutively recruited for a 12 week evaluation program. Socio-demographic data and clinical information were collected, rating scales were used to assess anxious and depressive symptoms, nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and craving.
RESULTS: Of the 78 recruited smokers, 17 remained abstinent and 61 reverted to smoking during the period of 12 weeks. The probability of maintaining abstinence was increased when low depressive symptoms or low craving occurred during the cessation program.
CONCLUSION: The present results strengthen the importance of assessing depressive symptoms and craving over the follow-up of a physician-assisted smoking cessation program to detect abstaining smokers at risk to relapse.

Keywords: Smoking cessation, Anxious symptom, Depressive symptom, Tobacco withdrawal, Craving.


4 - Effect of an Educational Program on Schoolchildren’s Energy Expenditure during Physical Education Classes

Cristianne Troleis da Cunha; Ana Paula Poblacion; Fernando Antonio Basile Colugnati; José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo Taddei; Mario Maia Bracco

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(1):M160104

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OBJECTIVE: Physical activity is a means of prevention of noncommunicable diseases. The level of physical activity of children is decreasing in Brazil, and this can increase the risks of diseases associated with sedentary lifestyles and obesity.
METHOD: This is a school-based randomized controlled trial which evaluated the impact of an educational intervention on children's physical activity level, energy expenditure, and teacher's behavior during physical education classes at public schools in São Paulo. The studied population comprised children attending the 1st and the 2nd grades of eight schools (three exposed and five unexposed to teacher training on a course in nutrition and physical activity). Outcomes were measured by direct observation, recorded by a VHS camera during physical education classes; data from 78 physical education classes were analyzed by the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time - SOFIT.
RESULTS: After intervention, results showed highly significant increases in children's physical activity level (walking, p < 0.001; vigorous activities (p < 0.001), and a decrease in the standing category (p < 0.001). It also showed a nonsignificant increase in mean energy expenditure of children (70.6% = 27.6Kcal), but the interaction's effect of group and time (intervention) was highly significant (32.4Kcal; 95%CI 24.7 - 40.1, p < 0.001) indicating the intervention effectiveness in increasing the energy expenditure of children during Physical Education classes. It also showed an increase in length of physical education classes (26.2 to 32.1 minutes (p = 0.01).
CONCLUSION: There was a change in teachers' behavior with a positive impact on children's physical activity level and energy expenditure after the educational intervention.

Keywords: Energy Expenditure; Physical Education; Child; Randomized Controlled Trial.

5 - Evaluation of the effect of learning on the full extent of inspiratory and expiratory pressure in healthy adults

Beatriz Branco Giuliani; Glaucia Cristiane Olavo; Kátia de Souza Machado; Luiz Carlos de Abreu; Vitor Engracia Valenti; Rodrigo Daminello Raimundo

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(1):M160105

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BACKGROUND: Measurements of maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure are used to assess the pressure developed by the respiratory muscles and the passive elastic recoil of the pulmonary system. Such measurements are also used as criteria for weaning from mechanical ventilation, to determine the functional consequences of several systemic diseases and the development of lung diseases and neuromuscular disorders. The test in an outpatient setting is easy to perform, well tolerated and has predictive value.
OBJECTIVE: To verify the presence of a learning effect in measurements of maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures.
METHODS: We performed 15 sequential measurements of Maximal Inspiratory Pressure and 15 of Maximal Expiratory Pressure in 71 individuals. Results for both series were compared throughout each series.
RESULTS: The comparison between the first and the other measurements showed no statistically significant differences. (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: There was no learning effect with 15 repeated measurements of Maximal Inspiratory or Expiratory Pressure in healthy adults.

Keywords: Inspiratory pressure; Learning effect; Respiratory muscles.

6 - Microanatomy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in relation to inguinal ligament and its clinical importance

Sadacharan Chakravarthy Marx

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(1):M160106

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BACKGROUND: A better knowledge of the composition and properties of connective tissue related to the Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve (LFCN) and to the Inguinal Ligament may be important to understand the diagnosis and treatment applicable to injuries such as meralgia paresthetica.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative amounts of the non-fascicular components in the following areas: (i) proximal to the inguinal ligament [LFCN-1], (ii) deep to the inguinal ligament [LFCN-2], or (iii) distal to LFCN-2 [LFCN-3]. These amounts were discriminated as adipose [FAT] and non-adipose (connective) [NON-FAT] tissues.
METHOD: Samples of LFCN-1, LFCN-2 and LFCN-3 from 21 human cadaveric samples were used. Paraffin sections of these structures were processed by Masson's trichrome stain for connective tissue. The number of fascicles was counted in each of these structures; FAT and NON-FAT areas were determined in the non-fascicular areas of the structures.
RESULTS: There were more fascicles in LFCN-3 vs. LFCN-1 or LFCN-2; there was more NON-FAT vs. FAT in LFCN-2 vs. LFCN-1 and LFCN-3; inversely, there was more FAT vs. NON-FAT in LFCN-3 vs. LFCN-1 and LFCN-2. All of these comparisons were statistically significant.
CONCLUSION: The presence of a higher content of NON-FAT in LFCN-2 and FAT in LFCN-3 may help to explain meralgia paresthetica resulting from compression or focal entrapment of the Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve as it passes deep relative to the inguinal ligament.

Keywords: Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve; Collagen fibers; Adipose tissue, Inguinal ligament.

7 - Aerobic and anaerobic training sessions promote antioxidant changes in young male soccer players

Rafaela Liberali; Danilo Wilhelm Filho; Edio Luis Petroski

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(1):M160107

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OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic vs. anaerobic intense training sessions on biomarkers of oxidative stress.
METHODS: The included sample comprised 18 junior male soccer players (18-21 years) during the intermediate season. Blood samples were obtained before (baseline) and after aerobic or anaerobic training sessions and the following substances were assayed: (i) the biomarkers of cellular damage Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactive Substances and Oxidized Glutathione; (ii) the non-enzymatic antioxidants Reduced Glutathione and Total-Glutathione, (iii) the antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Reductase, Glutathione Peroxidase and Glutathione S-Transferase.
RESULTS: (a) the contents of Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactive Substances and Oxidized Glutathione showed no significant differences before vs. after aerobic or anaerobic training sessions. (b) After aerobic training sessions, the activity of Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Reductase, and the contents of Reduced Glutathione and Total Glutathione were decreased; the activity of Glutathione S-transferase and Glutathione Peroxidase were increased while Catalase activity remained unaltered. (c) After anaerobic training sessions, Catalase activity decreased; Glutathione-Peroxidase increased; Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Reductase, and Reduced, Oxidized and Total Glutathione showed no significant differences.
CONCLUSION: These results provide evidence of a more pronounced systemic oxidative stress after the aerobic as compared to the anaerobic training session in young soccer players.

Keywords: Reactive oxygen species, Oxidative stress, Antioxidants, Aerobic and anaerobic sessions, Soccer players.


8 - MedicalExpress Year Three: SciELO and Sports Medicine Highlights

Mauricio Rocha-e-Silva

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(1):M160108