Medical Express

ISSN (print): 2318-8111

ISSN (online): 2358-0429

Issue: 2018 - 10 Articles

RAPID COMMUNICATION

1 - Writing good English: is scientific English a Latin language in disguise?

Mauricio Rocha-e-Silva

MEDICALEXPRESS 2018;5:

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BACKGROUND: English is the lingua franca of science; it is the language of the two last world superpowers and the language of four out of the world's ten greatest producers of science; it is a fairly simple language and the most hybridized language in history, with Latin and French contributing 60% of the entire English lexicon. The object of this study is to determine whether the frequency of use of imported words is a function of literary genre.
METHOD: texts were randomly selected from (a) medical scientific original articles, (b) newspaper financial reports, (c) sport reportages, (d) literary texts and (e) colloquial English; for comparison a collection of similarly distributed texts were selected from Portuguese; the frequency of occurrence of Latin or Neo-Latin words was determined in the English texts as well as the occurrence of non-Latin or non-Neo-Latin words in the Portuguese texts; a oneway analysis of variance was used to determine whether significant differences occurred between genres in the two languages.
RESULTS: The frequency of occurrence of Latin/French words in English text was significantly dependent on the literary genre, being maximal in medical scientific texts and minimal in colloquial English; in contrast, the frequency of occurrence of non-Latin words in Portuguese was constant throughout the same literary genres.
CONCLUSION: The use of Latin/French words in English is directly proportional to the complexity of the literary genre, a phenomenon not observed in Portuguese, a typical Neo-Latin language.


Keywords: Medical Education; Scientific language; Ethymology.

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

3 - Analysis of Reliability of Peak Treadmill Running in Maximum Progressive Effort Test: Influence of Training Level

Alberto Souza de Sá Filho; Wendel Alves; Thiago Gottgtroy Miranda; Eduardo Portuga; Sérgio Machado

MEDICALEXPRESS 2018;5:

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OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability (stability) of the peak velocity measurement (VPeak) derived from the incremental maximal effort test, as well as to establish the possible influence of the level of training on these responses.
METHOD: Thirty-eight male volunteers made two visits (3 - 5 days apart) to the training center where the study was conducted and performed maximal progressive running tests. The protocol consisted of increments of 0.5 km.h-1/min, starting at a running speed comfortable for each participant (7-9 km.h-1). All subjects were encouraged to achieve the maximum possible performance in both tests, with final voluntary exhaustion being the criterion for interruption.
RESULTS: The intra-class correlation coefficient presented excellent consistency of measurements (ICC = 0.975 - p = 0.001). The typical relative error of the measurement was 2.6% for the stability of the measurement of VPeak. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the individual coefficients of variation for measures 1 vs. 2 (p > 0.05). Graphical representation of Bland-Altman demonstrated a homogeneous distribution of the measurement error for all dependent variables.
CONCLUSION: Determination of VPeak exhibited excellent levels of reliability with small measurement errors. There was no influence of the training level on the reliability responses.


Keywords: Reliability; VO<sub>2Max</sub>; Aerobic Exercise; Aerobic Performance.

REVIEW

4 - Acute effect of uphill running: current scenario and future hypotheses

Alberto Souza Sá Filho; Sérgio Machado

MEDICALEXPRESS 2018;5:

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Strategies for metabolic adjustments are often considered by athletes throughout a running event. Planning for such events during training does not always include variations from level training, even though up/downhill exertion should definitely be a part of such planning. The differentiation of training stimuli, under adverse conditions of intensity and inclination, can generate differentiated benefits. However, uphill running raises expectations of deleterious effects. The imposition of different slope gradients throughout running could generate increased metabolic demands for sports performance. Thus, the present study aimed to answer questions mainly about the acute effects of uphill running, its relationship with aerobic performance, allowing us to introduce new hypotheses for future studies in the area on the subject. Gaps still need to be filled concerning the relevance of uphill running, and its determinants. Many of the points presently under scrutiny only lead to speculative explanations; for logical reasons, more studies should focus on the prescription of training at different slopes. This is the point at which specific conditioning is required, because the regulation of the effort and the energy cost resulting from the imposition of uphill running during competitive races depends heavily on previous experiences. This review will cover recently published research on the subject.


Keywords: Uphill Running; Kinematic Analysis; Stretching-Shortening Cycle; VO<sub>2Max</sub>.

5 - The Importance of Oral Health during Pregnancy: A review

Vinay Marla; Ritesh Srii; Deepak Kumar Roy; Hardik Ajmera

MEDICALEXPRESS 2018;5:

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Pregnancy is a transient physiological state which brings about different hormonal changes in a woman’s body. These effects are generalized and there are various oral changes as well. There are a number of especially important alterations in the periodontal conditions within the oral cavity. These changes have important implications as they have been known to cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. Better knowledge about these scenarios among health care professionals and women would go a long way toward avoiding or minimizing these adverse outcomes. Health education is an important tool in creating awareness among pregnant women regarding improvement of their oral health. Awareness among the health professionals and good inter-departmental collaboration would help toward a more efficient treatment of these pregnancy related conditions.


Keywords: oral health, oral health education, pregnancy

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

6 - Rapid progression of neurotoxoplasmosis in a patient with concomitant rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematous

Matheus Fernandes de Oliveira; Cristiana Borges Pereira; Vitor Brito Silva; Maristela Carvalho Costa; Vitor Ribeiro Paes; Roberto El Ibrahim

MEDICALEXPRESS 2018;5:

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ORIGINAL RESEARCH

7 - Patients with pure dermatomyositis/polymyositis and anti-PM/Scl autoantibody resembling anti-synthetase syndrome

Samara Pereira Alves; Marilda Guimarães Silva; Isabela Bruna Pires Borges; Samuel Katsuyuki Shinjo

MEDICALEXPRESS 2018;5:

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OBJECTIVE: The anti-PM/Scl autoantibody has been described in patients with scleromyositis. However, there are scant studies evaluating its prevalence and reactivity in dermatomyositis and polymyositis.
METHOD: A cross-sectional, single center study evaluating the anti-PM/Scl autoantibody in 85 dermatomyositis and 32 polymyositis patients, without overlapping syndrome, was conducted between 2000 and 2016. Clinical data and complementary examinations were reviewed from electronic medical records with pre-parameterized information.
RESULTS: The mean age of dermatomyositis and polymyositis patients was 41.1 and 42.8 years, respectively. The presence of anti-PM/Scl was observed in 5 (5.9%) dermatomyositis and 2 (6.3%) polymyositis patients. Two of these patients also had the anti-Ku antibody. The relevant clinical manifestations of these 7 patients were constitutional symptoms (100% of cases), muscular (100%), pulmonary (85.7%) and joint (71.4%) involvement, “mechanic hands” (85.7%), Raynaud phenomenon (85.7%) and plantar hyperkeratosis (85.7%). The 7 patients had relapses of disease activity, but at conclusion of the present study, 5 had complete clinical response and 2 complete remission of the disease.
CONCLUSION: There is a low frequency of the anti-PM/Scl autoantibody in dermatomyositis and polymyositis patients. In addition, patients with this autoantibody exhibit a similar pattern of manifestations to that of antisynthetase syndrome.


Keywords: Autoantibodies; dermatomyositis; myositis; polymyositis.

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

8 - Insulin resistance is increased in adult patients with dermatomyositis

Diego Sales de Oliveira; Marilda Silva Guimarães; Samuel Katsuyuki Shinjo

MEDICALEXPRESS 2018;5:

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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate insulinemia in glucocorticoid naïve patients with dermatomyositis and to evaluate insulin resistance using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR).
METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 25 dermatomyositis, non-diabetic glucocorticoid naïve patients. The control group consisted of 50 volunteers matched for age, gender, ethnicity, weight and height. The HOMA2-IR index was calculated from baseline insulin and glucose data. The International Myositis Assessment & Clinical Studies Group (IMACS) parameters were used to evaluate disease status.
RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 43.5 years and these were predominantly females. Patients had low disease activity according to IMACS parameters. Higher body mass index and waist circumference were observed in the dermatomyositis group compared to the control group. Insulin level and HOMA2-IR were also higher in patients with dermatomyositis. Moreover, analyzing dermatomyositis alone, the HOMA2-IR index correlated positively with weight, body mass index and waist circumference and was independent on disease status parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with dermatomyositis had higher values for basal insulinemia, insulin resistance, body mass index and waist circumference. Moreover, HOMA2-IR moderately correlated with these anthropometric parameters. These metabolic abnormalities are related to the development of metabolic syndrome, one of the main comorbidities observed in dermatomyositis.


Keywords: Glucose; insulin resistance; dermatomyositis; metabolic syndrome; myositis.

ARTICLE REVIEW

9 - Application of adiposity indices to a sample of physically active individuals living in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

Mirele Savegnago Mialich; Ana Maria Aiello; Bruna Ramos Silva; Alceu Afonso Jordão

MEDICALEXPRESS 2018;5:

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OBJECTIVE: To compare adiposity indexes in physical activity individuals to evaluate behavior, diagnostic ability and to determine which parameter best reflects and diagnoses body fatness.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 100 physically active individuals (59% female). The participants were submitted to anthropometric and body composition evaluation; we measured weight, height, circumferences, blood pressure and bioelectrical impedance analysis. A physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ, short version) was applied, as well as a questionnaire about the possible use of nutritional supplementation. The data were statistically analyzed, with significance level set at p <0.05.
RESULTS: Mean age, height, weight and BMI were 24.2 ± 6.65 years, 169.5 ± 8.94 cm, 69.1 ± 14.83 kg and 23.9 ± 4.19 kg/m2 , respectively, with a significant difference between the genders, except for age. Most of the subjects were in the normal weight range, with a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2, and were very active. BMIfat correlated better with body fat for males (r = 0.896) and females (r = 0.935), followed by BMI (0.689 and 0.767, respectively) and BAI (0.590 and 0.718).
CONCLUSIONS: Adiposity indexes are viable alternatives for the diagnosis of obesity and should be more explored as fast, practical and low cost measures in clinical practice.


Keywords: Body composition, Fat mass, Adiposity index, Body mass index, Physically active individuals

10 - Cardiac vagal index varies according to field position in male elite football players

Claudio Gil Soares de Araújo; Altamiro Bottino; Flávio Gomes Ferreira Pinto

MEDICALEXPRESS 2018;5:

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BACKGROUND: Cardiac vagal index (CVI) is supposedly higher in athletes and may differ between sports and/or between field positions.
OBJECTIVE: To compare CVI: a) between elite football players vs. non-athletes and b) according to five football positions.
METHOD: 242 football players of the first Brazilian/Angolan division were divided in five positions (N): goalkeepers (17), defenders (44), wingers (34), midfielders (87) and forwarders (60) and compared with 303 age-matched healthy non-athletes. CVI was estimated from a 4-second exercise test by quantifying the ratio of two cardiac cycle durations, before and at the end of a fast unloaded cycling exercise.
RESULTS: Football players had resting and maximal heart rates of, respectively, 59 and 190 bpm and measured VO2max of 62.2 mL/(kg.min). Players and non-athletes showed similar CVI results (median-[P25-P75]) – 1.63- [1.46-1.84] vs 1.61-[1.41-1.81] (p = 0.22). Wingers tended to have a higher CVI (1.84-[1.60-1.99]), especially when compared to defenders (1.53-[1.41-1.72] (p = 0.01). There was a modest non-physiologically relevant association between VO2max and CVI (r = 0.15).
CONCLUSIONS: Football players did not differ from non-athletes in CVI; however, among players, wingers were more often vagotonic, which may represent a hemodynamic advantage for match situations, where rapid heart rate transitions and faster oxygen delivery to muscles are required.


Keywords: Sports; Autonomic nervous system; Heart rate; 4-second exercise test; Parasympathetic activity.