Medical Express

ISSN (print): 2318-8111

ISSN (online): 2358-0429

Author's Articles

10 result(s) for: Eduardo Guedes

Cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for smoking alcoholics in outpatients

Flávia Melo Campos Leite Guimarães; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Adriana Cardoso; Alexandre Martins Valença; Eduardo Guedes da Conceição; Anna Lucia Spear King

MEDICALEXPRESS 2014;1(6):336-340 - ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Abstract PDF

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is a therapy based on cognitive and behavioral techniques: cognitive psychological education, cognitive restructuring, interoceptive exposure, breathing exercises and relaxation, all aiming at behavioral changes. The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a specific model of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for alcoholic outpatients in the treatment of smoking.
METHOD: Sessions were carried out in two stages: (1) a "stop smoking" stage lasting four weeks, with 3 sessions/ week; (2) a maintenance stage beginning with 2 weeks of a single weekly session, followed by monthly sessions until the end of the one-year treatment.
RESULTS: Forty patients participated in this study, 22 men and 18 women. After a year of treatment, 24 patients had stopped smoking, whereas 16 relapsed during the course of the year; two abandoned treatment. Women showed better results: 77.8% stopped smoking by the end of the treatment, but only 45.4% of the men reached this goal.
CONCLUSION: Patients under treatment for alcoholism submitted to the tobacco treatment program; a majority of them achieved the treatment goal. A growing population of alcoholics and smokers are looking for treatment; this points to the need for a follow-up treatment program for smoking in an Alcoholism Treatment Unit. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy proved to be effective in the treatment of tobacco dependency mainly in women.



Keywords: Addiction; comorbidity; anxiety; withdrawal.

Social networking, a new online addiction: a review of Facebook and other addiction disorders

Eduardo Guedes; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Flávia Melo Campos Leite Guimarães; Sergio Machado; Anna Lucia Spear King

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(1):M160101 - REVIEW

Abstract PDF

INTRODUCTION: Facebook is the world's most widely accessed social network, where millions of people intercommunicate. Behavioral and psychological changes relate to abusive and uncontrolled use creating severe impacts on users' life.
METHOD: A critical revision was performed through MedLine, Lilacs, SciELO and Cochrane databases using the terms: "Facebook Addiction," "Social Network Sites," "Facebook Abuse." The search covered the past 5 years up to January 2015. Articles that examine dependence on Facebook in the general population were included; we analyzed how this concept evolved over the last five years, and hope to contribute to the better understanding of the issue and its impacts.
RESULTS: Although controversial, published reports correlate Facebook addiction to mechanisms of reward and gratification. Some users developed an abusive relationship stimulated by the false feeling of satisfaction or as a way to feel better or more self-assured (increased level of excitement or escape). Studies from several countries indicate different prevalence, probably due to lack of consensus, and the use of different denominations, giving rise to the adoption of different diagnostic criteria.
CONCLUSION: Social Networks are modern communication tools; however, not only benefits, but also subsequent damage caused by its abusive use must be monitored. Many users with abusive usage and dependence recognize significant losses in their personal, professional, academic, social and family lives. Further investigation is needed to determine if abusive Facebook usage is a new psychiatric classification or merely the substrate of other disorders.



Keywords: Facebook Addiction, Facebook Abuse, Social Media Addiction, Social Media Abuse, Social Networking Sites Addiction.

Validation of the Cell Phone Dependence Scale

Anna Lucia Spear King1; Eduardo Guedes; Flávia Leite Guimarães; Mariana King Pádua; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Douglas Rodrigues; Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Antonio Egidio Nardi

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract PDF

BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The boundary between cellphone use and abuse is quite tenuous. Research is required to evaluate the use of this device interacting in the everyday life of users, whether to speak or to perform tasks.
OBJECTIVE: To construct a novel and specific scale to evaluate cellphone dependence checking its psychometric properties for clarity, accuracy and reliability.
METHODS: Validation of a Cellphone Dependence Scale (CPDS) was performed in 5 phases: 1- initial scale construction with 20 questions, 2- expert evaluation, 3- application to 200 volunteers, 4- statistical analysis and results, and 5- elaboration of the final version of the CPDS.
RESULTS: We used the R statistical program Version 3.4.2 and the “dplyr” package to present the descriptive statistics, the hypotheses tests of differences of means and the factorial analysis. The results provided a validated and accepted final version for CPDS. The last step of the study was to calculate Cronbach’s alpha, in order to measure the internal consistency of the questionnaire. The value found was 0.897, which is considered very good.
CONCLUSIONS: This project resulted in the construction of the final CPDS version suitable for the clinical context and to be used in the conduct of research on cellphone dependence. CPDS may contribute to future studies, conscious use of cellphones, harm reduction, and improved quality of life vis-à-vis the cellphone.



Keywords: Digital dependence; cellphone; digital technologies; behavior; disorder.

Validation of a scale to evaluate Digital Dependence of Employees

Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Mariana King Pádua; Eduardo Guedes; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Flavia Leite Guimarães; Douglas Rodrigues; Anna Lucia Spear King

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract PDF

BACKGROUND: The evolution of technologies and mobility, new digital resources have emerged transforming human behavior. These include the abusive use of digital devices, leading to various dependences regarding the way people use technology. Collective environments also begin to exhibit symptoms of such dependences.
OBJECTIVE: Validate a Digital Dependence of Employees Scale (DDES), applied to personnel not holding leadership positions in organizations.
METHOD: Data were collected via Internet. The sample totaled 301 volunteers from a state-owned company, of which 294 were statistically validated. Participants were asked to answer 20 questions prepared by experts. After the collection procedure, a database was created for statistical analysis.
RESULTS: Statistical analysis procedure including factorial analysis was conducted, which confirmed data adequacy. Three statistical criteria were used: Bartlett Sphericity test, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Criterion and Factorial analysis, including Screeplot; the latter determined adequate commonalities, indicating the cancellation of only 1 out of the 20 original scale questions. The internal consistency of the scale measured through the Cronbach Alpha Coefficient showed a positive result of 0.764. Thus, scale validation objectives were achieved.
CONCLUSION: The DDES scale was considered validated to be applied to employees in organizational environments. The limitations found to apply the scale did not compromise its results.



Keywords: digital dependence; digital dependence of employees; scale; DDES.

Validation of a scale to assess Facebook dependence

Eduardo Guedes; Mariana King Pádua; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Douglas Rodrigues; Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Flávia Leite Guimarães; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Anna Lucia Spear King

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract PDF

BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Facebook is a social network that has become part of the everyday life of contemporary humanity and is notably the most accessed digital tool, worldwide; through it, one can simultaneously relate to millions of people, as a source of information, communication or entertainment.
OBJECTIVE: To produce and validate a scale to evaluate Facebook dependence (FDS).
METHOD: Validation was performed in 5 phases: 1- initial scale construction with 20 questions, 2- expert evaluation, 3- application in 200 volunteers, 4- statistical analysis and results, and 5- elaboration of the final 18-question validated version of FDS.
RESULTS: We obtained a descriptive statistical analysis, a clear-cut separation of dependents vs. non-dependents and a successful factorial analysis. These results provided a validated version of FDS.
CONCLUSIONS: We were able to construct the validated final version of FDS with 18 questions appropriate to the clinical contexts and to be used in conducting research on Facebook dependence. This scale will contribute to future research related to this specific digital dependence, hopefully reducing harmful effects and improving quality of life.



Keywords: digital dependence; human behavior; Facebook; social network.

Validation of the scale to evaluate physical damages related to the Abusive Use of Technology in daily life (PDAUTS)

Mariana Spear King Lins de Pádua; Anna Lucia Spear King; Eduardo Guedes; Flávia Leite Guimarães; Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Douglas Rodrigues; Antonio Egidio Nardi

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract PDF

BACKGROUND INFORMATION: New computer technologies, namely smart cellphones and tablets, among others, interacting along the daily life of individuals may contribute toward the rise of problems: depression, stress and physical damage (undue postures, upper and lower extremity disorders, vision problems, obesity), all of them related to excessive time spent on technological equipment; together with inadequate furniture, quality of life can be seriously affected.
OBJECTIVE: To validate a scale to evaluate physical damage related to the Abusive Use of Technology (PDAUTS) in daily life.
METHODS: Validation of the PDAUTS was performed through 5 phases: (1) initial scale construction with 20 questions; (2) expert evaluation of questions; (3) application to 200 volunteers; (4) statistical analysis of the results; (5) preparation of the final validated version, retaining the 20 questions.
RESULTS: We used the R statistical program, version 3.4.2 and the “dplyr” package to present the descriptive statistics, the hypothesis tests of mean differences and the factor analysis. The results provided a validated final version for PDAUTS. The last step of the study was to calculate Cronbach’s alpha parameter, in order to measure the internal consistency of the scale. The value found was 0.897, which in is considered very good.
CONCLUSION: The validated PDAUTS allowed us to evaluate physical damage in each subject and design adequate training and treatment programs, reducing overall impairments and contributing to the improvement in quality of life.



Keywords: Digital dependency; physical damage; ergonomics; digital technologies; reduction.

Validation of a Scale to evaluate Pathological Digital Game Dependence

Anna Lucia Spear King1; Mariana King Pádua; Eduardo Guedes; Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Flávia Leite Guimarães; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Douglas Rodrigues; Antonio Egidio Nardi

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract PDF

BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Digital game or video game disorders have been recently (June 2018) included in ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases) by the World Health Organization (WHO). The disorder can occur with or without an internet connection.
OBJECTIVE: Validation of a scale to evaluate the dependence of pathological digital game (PDGD).
METHOD: Validation of the PDGD was performed in 5 phases: (1) initial scale construction with 20 questions, (2) expert assessment, (3) application to 200 volunteers, (4) statistical analysis and production of results using statistical programs, (5) elaboration of the final validated scale.
RESULTS: We used the R statistical program Version 3.4.2 and the “dplyr” package to present the descriptive statistics, the hypotheses tests of differences of means and the factorial analysis. The last step was to calculate Cronbach’s alpha, in order to measure the internal consistency of the questionnaire. The value found was 0.955, which is very good.
CONCLUSIONS: This research allowed us to construct a final version of the PDGD suitable for the clinical contexts and usable in research on the dependence of digital games. This scale may contribute to future studies, conscious use of technologies, reduction of physical and emotional damage and improvement of the quality of life.



Keywords: Digital game; video-game; game disorder, gaming behavior.

Validation of a scale to evaluate the abusive use of technologies (Computer, cell phone, tablet, among others)

Anna Lucia Spear King; Mariana King Pádua; Eduardo Guedes; Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Flávia Leite Guimarães; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Douglas Rodrigues; Antonio Egidio Nardi

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract PDF

BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Daily, prolonged interactivity of individuals with technologies (computer, cell phone, tablet, among others) impacts life and significantly changes habits, behaviors, personal and social relationships. Technologies lead to a multitude of advantages, but attention is required concerning possible damages.
OBJECTIVE: Validation of a scale to evaluate the abuse use of technologies (TAUS).
METHOD: TAUS validation was carried out in 5 phases: (1) initial scale construction with 20 questions, (2) expert evaluation, (3) application to 200 volunteers, (4) statistical analysis and results, (5) preparation of the final version of the validated TAUS. We used the R statistical program and the “dplyr” package version 3.4.2 to present descriptive statistics, to test hypotheses of means differences and for factorial analysis. Factor analysis was used for the orthogonal model. The method used was Principal Components based on Spearman’s correlation matrix.
RESULTS: The results provided a final, validated version of a TAUS suitable for clinical and research contexts. The last step of the study was to calculate Cronbach’s alpha, in order to measure the internal consistency of the scale. The value found was 0.910, which is considered good.
CONCLUSIONS: This Technology Abuse Scale may contribute to future studies, to the conscious use of technologies, to a reduction of physical and emotional damage and to an improvement of the subjects’ quality of life.



Keywords: Abusive use, digital dependence, technologies, mental disorder.

Validation of the scale for assessing depression and its relation to technology dependence

Flávia Leite Guimarães; Mariana King Pádua; Eduardo Guedes; Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Douglas Rodrigues; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Anna Lucia Spear King

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract PDF

BACKGROUND: The daily coexistence with the technologies (computer, mobile phone, tablet, among others), begins to produce significant changes in human behavior. We have observed that there is an association between dependence on technologies and major depressive disorder, as well as with other mental disorders.
OBJECTIVE: To validate a scale for assessing depression and its relation to dependence on everyday technologies.
METHODS: Validation of a Technology Dependent Depression Scale (TDDS) was performed in 5 phases: (1) initial scale construction with 20 questions; (2) expert evaluation; (3) application to 100 volunteers, (4) statistical analysis and results, (5) preparation of the final version of the validated TDDS.
RESULTS: We used the R statistical program, version 3.4.2 and the “dplyr” package to present descriptive statistics, hypotheses tests of mean differences and factorial analysis. The results provided a validated and approved final version for TDDS.
CONCLUSIONS: We constructed the final version of the validated TDDS, which is adequate for clinical contexts and to be used in future research. All the psychometric properties were checked for accuracy, reliability, presentation, clarity, pertinence and comprehension of the instrument conferring validity to the end-product.



Keywords: Digital dependence; major depressive disorder; depression; social networks; technologies.

Scale validation to evaluate WhatsApp dependence (WADS)

Anna Lucia Spear King; Mariana King Pádua; Eduardo Guedes; Flávia Leite Guimarães; Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Douglas Rodrigues; Antonio Egidio Nardi

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract PDF

BACKGROUND INFORMATION: One of the most popular social networks is WhatsApp. Abusive use of this tool has produced significant changes in behavioral and social behaviors and habits of individuals. Therefore, research is needed to allow us to specifically evaluate the interaction of WhatsApp with the daily lives of individuals.
OBJECTIVE: Production and validation of a scale to evaluate WhatsApp dependence (WADS). METHODS: Validation performed in 5 phases: 1- initial scale construction with 20 questions, 2- expert evaluation, 3- application in volunteers, 4- statistical analysis and results, and 5- elaboration of the final version of the validated WADS.
RESULTS: We obtained a descriptive statistical analysis, a clear-cut separation of dependents vs. non-dependents and a successful factorial analysis. These results provided a validated version of WADS.
CONCLUSIONS: We were able to construct a final version of WADS adequate to clinical contexts and to be used in future research to evaluate dependence of this digital tool. WADS will contribute to the conscious use of WhatsApp, hopefully reducing harmful effects and improving quality of life.



Keywords: WhatsApp; digital dependence; digital technologies, social networks.